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残酷的可恨的女性割礼  

2016-06-12 08:14:00|  分类: 健康,女性割礼,乌 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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残酷的可恨的女性割礼在我过去的博文里已经介绍过, 附上三段原文介绍。一是定义,二是分型,三是历史上曾经以此治疗女性手淫或歇斯底里等。

"FGM" redirects here. For other uses, see FGM (disambiguation).

残酷的可恨的女性割礼 - 马晓年 - 马晓年的博客
乌干达附近公路边宣传画, 2004
Definition Defined in 1997 by the WHOUNICEF andUNFPA as the "partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons."[1]
Areas Concentrated in 27 countries in Africa, as well as in IndonesiaIraqi Kurdistanand Yemen[2]:5[3]
Numbers Over 200 million women and girls in those 30 countries, as of 2016[3]
Age Days after birth to puberty[2]:50
Prevalence
[show]Ages 15–49
[show]Ages 0–14

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known asfemale genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual removal of some or all of the external female genitaliaUNICEF estimated in 2016 that 200 million women had undergone the procedures in 27 countries in Africa, as well as in Indonesia, Iraqi Kurdistan and Yemen, with a rate of 80–98 percent within the 15–49 age group in Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Guinea, Mali, Sierra Leone, Somalia and Sudan.[3] The practice is also found elsewhere in Asia, the Middle East, and among communities from these areas around the world.

Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond; in half the countries for which national figures are available, most girls are cut before the age of five.[4] Procedures differ according to the country or ethnic group. They include removal of theclitoral hood and clitoral glans; removal of the inner labia; and removal of the inner and outer labia and closure of the vulva. In this last procedure (known asinfibulation), a small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid; the vagina is opened for intercourse and opened further for childbirth.[5] TheUnited Nations Population Fund estimated in 2010 that 20 percent of women affected by FGM had been infibulated, a practice found largely in northeast Africa.[6]

世界卫生组织分型I–II

残酷的可恨的女性割礼 - 马晓年 - 马晓年的博客

The World Health Organization has created a more detailed typology, Types I–III, based on how much tissue is removed. Type III is "sewn closed." Type IV describes symbolic circumcision and miscellaneous procedures.[1][13]:4, 23–28

Type I is subdivided into Ia, removal of the clitoral hood(rarely performed alone),[n 6] and the more common Ib (clitoridectomy), the complete or partial removal of theclitoral glans and clitoral hood.[1][13]:4 (When discussing FGM, the WHO uses clitoris to refer to the clitoral glans, the visible tip of the clitoris.)[13]:23 Susan Izett and Nahid Toubia write: "[T]he clitoris is held between the thumb and index finger, pulled out and amputated with one stroke of a sharp object."[34]

Type II (excision) is the complete or partial removal of theinner labia, with or without removal of the clitoral glans andouter labia. Type IIa is removal of the inner labia; IIb, removal of the clitoral glans and inner labia; and IIc, removal of the clitoral glans, inner and outer labia. Excision in French can refer to any form of FGM.[1]

Type III

Type III (infibulation or pharaonic circumcision), the "sewn closed" category, involves the removal of the external genitalia and fusion of the wound. The inner and/or outer labia are cut away, with or without removal of the clitoral glans. Type IIIa is the removal and closure of the inner labia and IIIb the outer labia.[n 7] The practice is found largely in Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan (though not South Sudan) in northeast Africa. Estimates of numbers vary: according to one in 2008, over eight million women in Africa have experienced it.[n 8] According to UNFPA in 2010, 20 percent of women with FGM have been infibulated.[6]

Comfort Momoh, a specialist midwife, writes of Type III: "[E]lderly women, relatives and friends secure the girl in the lithotomy position. A deep incision is made rapidly on either side from the root of the clitoris to the fourchette, and a single cut of the razor excises the clitoris and both the labia majora and labia minora."[36][37]:12–14 In Somalia the clitoral glans is removed and shown to the girl's senior female relatives, who decide whether enough has been amputated. After this the labia are removed.[37]:12[38]

A single hole of 2–3 mm is left for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid by inserting something, such as a twig, into the wound.[n 9][39] The vulva is closed with surgical thread, agave or acacia thorns, or covered with a poultice such as raw egg, herbs and sugar.[27]:491[37]:14 The parts that have been removed might be placed in a pouch for the girl to wear.[40] To help the tissue bond, the girl's legs are tied together, often from hip to ankle, for up to six weeks; the bindings are usually loosened after a week and may be removed after two.[41] Momoh writes:

英国著名割礼医生,最后受到唾弃

残酷的可恨的女性割礼 - 马晓年 - 马晓年的博客
Isaac Baker Brown "set to work to remove the clitoris whenever he had the opportunity of doing so."[112]

Gynaecologists in 19th-century Europe and the United States removed the clitoris to treat insanity and masturbation.[113] British doctor Robert Thomas suggested clitoridectomy as a cure for nymphomania in 1813.[114]The first reported clitoridectomy in the West, described in The Lancetin 1825, was performed in 1822 in Berlin by Karl Ferdinand von Graefeon a 15-year-old girl who was masturbating excessively.[115]

Isaac Baker Brown, an English gynaecologist, president of the Medical Society of London, and co-founder in 1845 of St. Mary's Hospital there, believed that masturbation, or "unnatural irritation" of the clitoris, caused peripheral excitement of the pubic nerve, which led to hysteria, spinal irritation, fits, idiocy, mania and death.[116] He therefore "set to work to remove the clitoris whenever he had the opportunity of doing so", according to his obituary in the Medical Times and Gazette in 1873.[117] Brown performed several clitoridectomies between 1859 and 1866. When he published his views in On the Curability of Certain Forms of Insanity, Epilepsy, Catalepsy, and Hysteria in Females (1866), doctors in London accused him of quackery and expelled him from the Obstetrical Society.[118]

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